Some Common Minerals found in Sediment Cores

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Glauconite – typically green, smooth and rounded with a varied chemical composition; authigenic mineral that forms in shallow waters (100-300m) on the Continental Shelf in quiet waters (away from shore) with low sedimentation rates; glauconite can also be detrital


Quartz – clear, glassy with the chemical formula SiO2; the second most abundant mineral in continental crust (after feldspar); amethyst, citrine, rose quartz, smoky quartz, agate, onyx, jasper, tiger’s eye, carnelian, chalcedony, chert, flint, aventurine

 

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Pyrite – pale-bronze or brass-yellow (when ‘new’) with the chemical formula FeS2; can form inside animal shells filling voids and can replace the original shell matrix]


Gypsum – clear, white, gray with various crystal habits and chemical formula CaSO4*2H2O; it forms by precipitation as a result of evaporation


Micas – very common, thin/ flat shiny minerals that can be white or clear (muscovite), brown or green (biotite)  with complex chemical compositions


Limonite (mineral) – yellowish-brown to brown, amorphous; usually a secondary mineral; iron oxide-hydroxide


Calcite (mineral) – calcium carbonate; usually white or colorless

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Some Common Minerals found in Sediment Cores

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